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The (OPNFV) Doctor Is In

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By Tomi Juvonen,  Technical Lead at Nokia and Doctor Project PTL

This post was originally published on Nokia’s blog and has been republished here with permission.

Long ago, networks comprised discrete elements with dedicated hardware running software that performed a function. Only one application ran on a single piece of hardware, namely the network element itself. The application had perfect knowledge of the hardware environment on which it was running.

Then along came cloud computing. Now, an application no longer needs to care about or manage the hardware it runs on, which is great.

When a fault occurs, telco applications have some very good mechanisms to deal with hardware and software failures, with redundant functional units jumping in to take over from one that has failed. Speed is vital here – it needs to happen lightning fast to keep continuous services, such as voice calls, running without interruption.

But how do we alert the telco application when something is happening with the underlying hardware? So far this has been a missing piece of the puzzle.

The OPNFV Doctor project has been working on creating just that kind of mechanism under OpenStack. Doctor is one of the first projects in Open Platform for NFV, as well as one of the first to graduate. The project was initiated by Docomo, which has been driving it forward strongly ever since.

Doctor has really been taken on board by OpenStack, which featured it heavily in the keynote session at the OpenStack Summit in Barcelona in 2016.

The journey has not been easy – particular challenges are the rolling infrastructure maintenance and upgrades in interaction with the virtual network functions manager (VNFM).

Current focus points include trying to perfect it so that it will work with any kind of payload, hybrid clouds and with no need for additional hardware. Even the application itself can be upgraded at the same time, as it knows how to take advantage of the new capabilities that come with the infrastructure upgrade.

The upgrade caused a buzz at the OpenStack Sydney Summit in November 2017 and the industry is now desperate for this feature to allow it to cloudify operations.

Want to contribute? Join us at OpenStack Summit

 

As the new Project Technical Leader (PTL) for Doctor, I have worked on bringing in seamless upgrades and maintenance of the underlying platform, without risking dropped calls or IP packets.

The concept is now quite mature, but still needs people around it to make it happen upstream. I will run a presentation and forum session about this in the coming OpenStack Summit in Vancouver on 23 May 2018.

Let’s work together to take the cloud maintenance and upgrade to the next level and ensure we can meet our industry’s requirements.

Share your thoughts on this topic by joining the Twitter discussion with @nokia and @nokianetworks using #NFV #openstack.

 

OPNFV Fraser: Maturity and Cloud Native Integration for Developers and End Users Alike

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By Tim Irnich, Chair, OPNFV Technical Steering Committee and Program Manager, Cloud, Open Source & Ecosystem at Ericsson

Today, the Fraser release goes live. It’s an important milestone for OPNFV, and I would like to sincerely thank all contributors, PTLs and working group facilitators, TSC members, Linux Foundation staff and all other supporters for the tremendous effort, creativity, enthusiasm and skill that went into the release.

Fraser Highlights

OPNFV is a large and diverse project and it is impossible to list all achievements in one blog post. But just to mention a few highlights, Fraser provides a significant step towards more mature cloud native support, higher platform maturity by enhancing features like telemetry and high availability, more robust networking capabilities and various forms of data plane acceleration, and also significantly advanced–and in some cases introduced–entirely new test methodologies and tools. As with previous OPNFV releases, Fraser integrates and verifies lots of updated and upgraded upstream components like OpenStack Pike, ODL Oxygen, FD.io release 18.01, and Kubernetes 1.9, only to mention a few. We have also made significant progress with our range of artifacts and services targeting developers by providing easily deployable, flexibly composable, and up-to-date platforms that can be used as comprehensive yet accessible development and testing environments.

The adoption of cloud native in OPNFV, in terms of creating reference stacks based on Kubernetes and integrating them with other related components, as well as the related enhancements to our CI and testing infrastructure, started some time ago. The Fraser release denotes a significant step forward in this effort. For example, we now have 8 different deployment scenarios across various installers that integrate Kubernetes and related components and tools, and Kubernetes support has been added to both Functest and Yardstick test frameworks.

Advances in testing include increased test coverage; for example in the areas of high availability and long term stability, better usability through lower execution times and additional traffic generators,  and better consumability through separating generic framework components from OPNFV-specific code. Based on the observation that the OPNFV test frameworks and the underlying infrastructure for test data collection and analytics is a useful asset also for other projects, the Functest team has introduced a clean separation between test framework and the related packaging mechanisms on the one side and OPNFV test cases on the other side. This allows cross-community testing where the Functest test framework, test results API and database backend, and visualization dashboards can be used by other projects within LFN and beyond. This has seen immediate adoption in ONAP with the interesting side effect that a 100MB container could replace the 1GB VM that was used previously, and reusing  the remaining OPNFV CI pipeline becomes very simple. Another noteworthy enhancement is that VSPERF added new tests to measure data plane performance in “noisy neighbor” situations–an effect known to cause significant performance degradations in suboptimally configured systems.

Further enhancements highlighting the growing maturity of the OPNFV reference platform are infrastructure maintenance and upgrade with zero VNF downtime, new and updated collectd plugins data collection plugins including DPDK and OVS stats & events, an SNMP agent,  IPMI events and many more. The Calipso project provides networking discovery, visualization, monitoring and analysis in Kubernetes and has added support for Contiv/VPP and Flannel in Fraser. The SDNVPN project has added support for Equal Cost Multipath routing (ECMP) in order to overcome the bottleneck of using a single VxLAN tunnel between datacenter edge and fabric.

Developers Tools

Our Cross-community CI (XCI) initiative is becoming more mature and has seen a boost in adoption by other projects during the Fraser release. It now supports multiple scenarios and a number of OPNFV features like BGPVPN, Service Function Chaining and Kubernetes have been integrated. We have also seen other installer toolchains like Apex adopting the XCI concept.  

We have launched our Lab-as-a-Service offering (available at http://labs.opnfv.org), which takes this concept behind XCI to the next level by providing free access to hardware resources and pre-provisioned stacks, saving community developers of OPNFV and other projects significant time and effort and enabling them to dedicate significantly more time to things that actually matter to them. We are continuing to work on this and will have even more information to share in the coming months.

Moreover, with Fraser, the vision towards dynamic continuous integration (CI) got a boost with the introduction of Scenario Descriptor File (SDF), Pod Descriptor File (PDF), and Installer Descriptor File (IDF) specifications, which contain machine readable information to enable OPNFV installers to deploy any OPNFV scenario to any Pharos lab. With these descriptor files, CI jobs can dynamically run on any available hardware as long as the SDF and IDF requirements match PDF capabilities. The concept will roll out in several phases over the summer.

Looking Ahead

We’ll put the Fraser release to the test in June at the Fraser Plugfest co-located with ETSI at their facilities in Sophia Antipolis, France and are already several milestones into Gambia where we will add a CD-based release process. Cloud native and edge computing will further advance through collaboration with upstream components in CNCF, updated lab specifications in Pharos suitable for edge computing along with new projects requirements, upstream development, and end-to-end testing and integration.

At 3 ½ years in, OPNFV is certainly growing more and more mature in its core deliverables whole at the same time looking ahead and addressing new use cases like Cloud Native and Edge Computing. Participation and adoption by end users like China Mobile and Orange further defines the important role OPNFV is playing in the industry. I hope you’ll join us!

Solving Problems Collaboratively at 4th OPNFV Plugfest for Euphrates and Beyond

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By Ray Paik, OPNFV Senior Program Manager, The Linux Foundation

The fourth OPNFV Plugfest, hosted by Intel at their Jones Farm Campus outside of Portland, OR was held on December 4-8, 2017. Intel has been a key contributor to OPNFV since the project launch and their hospitality was certainly appreciated by everyone attending the event. It was also great to see Intel’s Pharos PODs up close as they have been a great resource for the OPNFV community. There were 104 attendees (up 20% from last time), from 30 organizations that included 6 end-users and 6 non-member companies.

There were a lot of OPNFV deployment/testing of the latest Euphrates release on a variety of hardware platforms (3 on-site + 7 remote), finding/fixing bugs, VNF Onboarding, cross-community CI (XCI), SFC, the testing projects, and more. There were also many parallel sessions as the community continues their work on the upcoming OPNFV Fraser release and discussions on improvement areas for OPNFV such as documentation, release process, user support, etc.

With each Plugfest, I continue to be impressed with community’s dedication, passion, and collaborative culture. The presence of multiple project technical leads (PTLs) and key

stakeholders helped accelerate progress significantly and I was amazed at what the community accomplished in 5 days. The next Plugfest will be a co-located event with ETSI at their campus in Sophia Antipolis, France on June 4-8, 2018. Stay tuned for more details!

For more details on outcomes from the OPNFV Euphrates Plugfest, I encourage you to read the Plugfest Report.

Crossing a New Milestone in NFV: Open Source Verification of Commercial Products

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By Chris Donley, Sr Director, Open Source Ecosystems, Huawei; Chair, OPNFV Certification & Compliance Committee

As we kick off 2018, the OPNFV Compliance & Certification committee—the members driven body within OPNFV that defines recommendations to the Board for policies and oversight for compliance and certification—is pleased to announce the launch of the OPNFV Verified Program (OVP). The program is designed to simplify adoption of NFV in commercial products by establishing an industry threshold based on OPNFV releases. The fact we are using an open source platform as referent to measure compliance of commercial products—not necessarily based on its source code—is a new and innovative step for the industry.

The OPNFV Verified Program facilitates both vendor self-testing and third-party lab testing using the Dovetail test suite. In our initial version, we will be testing NFV infrastructure components: NFVI and VIM. In the future, we may expand the program to cover VNFs and other components, as well. In December, just ahead of the launch, we conducted a “beta program” with several vendors: Huawei, Nokia, Wind River, and ZTE. These companies provided valuable feedback while we refined and finalized the program. They also represent the first cohort to received the privilege of using the OPNFV Verified mark and logo. Congratulations to these companies and we welcome additional members of the open NFV ecosystem to join us!

OPNFV Verified Program is designed to help operators establish entry criteria for their trials and RFPs. We have worked closely with end user advisor operators to establish a framework and an initial bar to support their requirements. The program will also reduce operator testing load by identifying a set of common tests and executing them just once under the auspices of the OPNFV Verified Program, rather than many times in many labs. As OPNFV and the industry at large continue to mature, we will steadily raise the bar in future versions as to what becomes verified. We expect two OPNFV Verified versions per year, denoted with the month and the year to make it easy to identify the compliance level of submitted products.

Under the auspices of The Linux Foundation, we are well positioned to expand the program to support other projects in the future. Prior to the official launch, we initiated discussions with related projects on leveraging the program to support the wider open source community. OPNFV’s C&C, the group responsible for chartering the OPNFV Verified Program, is also exploring additional operator use cases that can be incorporated into the compliance test suite.

I am excited about the launch of the OPNFV Verified Program and I hope you will join us in 2018! To operators, I invite you to share your use cases and functional requirements, and please consider incorporating OPNFV Verified into your RFP process or lab trials. To vendors, I hope you’ll download the Dovetail tool and test your commercial offerings. If you’re looking for assistance, several third-party labs are eager to help. Learn more about the OPNFV Verified Program and get started today!

Please direct any questions you may have to verified@opnfv.org.

A 2017 Reflection: Transforming Networks Through Open Source NFV

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Read the full 2017 OPNFV Year in Review report here.

It is with gratitude and pleasure that I look back on our accomplishments of 2017 and with excitement for the future as I look ahead to our path as part of LF Networking in 2018. We have come such a long way together since our founding over three years ago and this moment of transition marks a great opportunity to reflect on our impact.

Starting with the unique mission to do systems integration as an open source project, we have become the engine room for integration, testing, and automation, and new NFV feature validation across the open source development ecosystem. What I am most proud of is the strong and collaborative relationships we have built with our key upstream partners, from OpenStack to OpenDaylight to Kubernetes, to data plane and acceleration groups like FD.io and DPDK, to hardware partners like Open Compute Project. 2017 also saw us incorporating MANO and analytics capabilities with ONAP, Open Baton, PNDA, and Calipso.

This work would not be possible without our extraordinary community and its welcoming global culture. This year saw two productive plugfests, hosted by Orange and Intel, the continuing growth of the XCI initiative, our Danube and Euphrates releases, and an extraordinary OPNFV Summit hosted in Beijing. We presented at Open Source Leadership Summit, ONS, China SDN/NFV, OpenStack, Light Reading’s Big Communications Event, and CableLabs Summer conference. We built our first ever community demo showing an integrated stack for the Virtual Central Office, and are about to launch our long-awaited OPNFV Verified Program.

Most importantly, we made friends, we shared beers, we debated, we worked to make our community more inclusive, we solved technical problems, and we reached out to forge ties across multiple communities. As we look forward to being part of LF Networking this year, I know that we will bring this spirit of working together to help all our networking projects bring value and change the world in 2018. Let’s go collaborate!

In the interim, I encourage you to download the full OPNFV 2017 Year in Review report for a more holistic look at what we’ve accomplished this past year.

 

Intern POV: Euphrates Plugfest

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OPNFV interns Shrenik Jain and Aakash Kt had the opportunity to attend the recent Euphrates Plugfest, held at the Intel campus in Hillsboro, Oregon, December 5-9.  We had the chance to sit down and chat with them about their experience at Plugfest and also learn what it’s like to intern with OPNFV.

Click below to watch the interview:

If you are interested in becoming an OPNFV intern, please email internship@opnfv.org 

How Orange is Leveraging OPNFV for Full-Scale NFV Rollout

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This post intially published to The New Stack

By: Jehanne Savi, executive, All IT Strategic Programs, Orange

Mandatory for the next generation of networks (such as 5G) and services, NFV transformation brings a variety of challenges.  Learn how Orange leverages open source software via OPNFV to solve several important issues along the way. 

Over the past few years, the entire networking industry has begun to transform as network demands rapidly increase. This is true for both the technology itself and the way in which carriers — like my employer Orange, as well as vendors and other service providers — adapt and evolve their approach to meeting these demands. As a result, we’re becoming more and more agile and adept in how we virtualize our evolving network and a shifting ecosystem.” keep up with growing demands and the need to virtualize.

At Orange, we are laser-focused on investments into future technologies and plan to spend over $16 billion between 2015 and 2018 towards new networks (including 4G, 4G+, fixed fiber). A key component of these investments — along with access network investments — are advancements in software-defined networking (SDN) and network functions virtualization (NFV) technologies as a way to create new revenue streams, improve agility, and reduce costs via a program we call On-Demand Networks. With 5G and network slicing around the corner, both SDN and NFV are major areas of investment. In fact, 5G will be natively virtualized through our investments in these areas. As such, our On-Demand Network program is a top priority.

NFV, in its ability to impart massive transformation, is similar to the industrial revolution in that it will profoundly impact our ‘factory’ (i.e. network) and business models along with changing consumer usage and creating a huge societal impact. That in mind, we’ve prioritized NFV use cases, including the Orange Easy GoNetwork, a Network as a Service (NaaS) offering for branch or remote-site connectivity provided by Orange Business Services in 75 countries. Easy Go Network is a network solution to connect easily remote sites with a zero-touch provisioning: the order is done online and a plug and play router is automatically sent on site. This will save time for IT managers with a lot of remote sites to manage like retail stores, agencies etc.

To experience the full benefits of NFV, the full-scale rollout is necessary. This includes model-driven architectures, policy-driven automation, DevOps, closed-loop feedback with big data analytics (ultimately utilizing AI and machine learning) and of course hardware disaggregation and virtualization. It is not enough to simply virtualize hardware resources, as other capabilities are critical to automate operations such as self-healing, scale-out, scale-in and lifecycle management. However, this work is not easy and requires a great deal of testing and analysis — not to mention skilled talent and a whole new level of KPIs.

To help us dive deeper into open source NFV, Orange became involved with the OPNFV project, hosted by The Linux Foundation, since its inception in 2014. Open source, and OPNFV in particular offers a way to collaboratively work on a set of reference architecture scenarios and testing tools for NFV Infrastructure and virtual network functions (NFV)  compliance and verification as well as Management and Orchestration (MANO) components.

Some of the top benefits of OPNFV realized by Orange include access to open source, testing and interoperability of open source NFV architecture, VNF/ service onboarding and operational simplification, among others.  The unique role that OPNFV plays in fostering collaboration among key stakeholders across the entire ecosystem is a huge benefit for all involved, and the relationship between Orange and the OPNFV community is symbiotic — in fact, Orange is the top telecom operator contributor in OPNFV, and in the top 5 across all contributors.

At Orange, we’re using open source as a way to speed up the industrialization (hardening) of technology and ensure open APIs to minimize vendor lock-in. OPNFV helps to solve some of the challenges that come with NFV by building an integrated and tested reference platform and methodology for NFV. This reduces the time and effort required for network transformation, ranging from NFV Infrastructure testing, reference architecture scenarios, VNF on-boarding and verification, network service onboarding, simplified operations, and interoperability.

Click here to learn more details on Orange’s involvement with OPNFV.

Invest in the future of NFV and your career at OPNFV Euphrates Plugfest, Dec 4-8

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By Sandra Rivera, Senior Vice President and General Manager, Network Platforms Group, Intel Corporation

From December 4th through the 8th, Intel will host the OPNFV Euphrates Plugfest at its Jones Farm campus in Hillsboro, Oregon. We are excited to support the OPNFV developer community in this fourth Plugfest, see familiar faces and welcome new members to the community. Intel has been involved with the OPNFV since its inception, and we continue to support its mission to create a standard NFV reference architecture, developed through system level integration, deployment and testing across open source ecosystems.

During the Euphrates Plugfest, community members including project technical leads (PTLs), and software developers will tackle the technical challenges of putting Euphrates release into operation. Attendees will improve the OPNFV platform through rigorous compatibility testing across multiple hardware and software configurations, including the latest platforms based on Intel architecture built on the Intel® Xeon® Scalable family of processors. Developers and vendors can try new scenarios, test cases, installers, tools and combinations of components.

Advantech, Nokia and Intel will provide onsite hardware resources, and CENGN, Lenovo and NEC will provide remote equipment, including OCP-based servers.

OPNFV Projects Meetings, Concurrent Hacking Session

New areas of focus for this Plugfest include collaboration with ETSI on its upcoming PlugTest test cases; ONAP integration, Kubernetes and container integration, and multi-access Edge. You can learn more about the previous Plugfest by reading the Danube Plugfest report.

We also have plans for key project teams to meet face-to-face. Doctor, Clover (Cloud Native NFV), Yardstick, Bottlenecks, Daisy, SNAPS-OO and other teams will meet for in-depth discussions, problem-solving, and planning for the upcoming Fraser release.

Due to overwhelming demand from previous Plugfests, we will also host several hacking sessions.

While the agenda is still under development, you can stay up to date on the latest schedule by visiting the Plugfest collaboration wiki page.

Intel Network Builders Ecosystem and Network Services Benchmarking project

The Intel Network Builders ecosystem is comprised of independent software vendors (ISVs), operating system vendors (OSVs), original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), telecom equipment manufacturers (TEMs), system integrators, communication service providers and other industry leaders focused on creating reference architectures and new use cases to accelerate the adoption and deployment of NFV and SDN.

The Intel Network Builders community has tested new concepts and contributed many innovations to open source communities, including OPNFV. One recent example is the Network Services Benchmarking (NSB) project launched over a year ago to develop a common testing framework for Network Function Virtualization Infrastructure (NFVI) and Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) characterization. The goal of NSB is to accelerate the VNF onboarding process, a key requirement as we prepare the infrastructure for 5G.

This benchmarking program has led to significant contributions to the Yardstick, Barometer and SampleVNF sub-projects in support of the latest Euphrates release. You can read more about NSB in a recent blog by John Healy, vice president and general manager of Intel’s Datacenter Network Solutions Group.

OPNFV Members, Non-Members and Intel Network Builders: Register for Plugfest Today

I encourage you to join us in Hillsboro December 4-8. Test the Euphrates release, expand your industry network, and build on your NFV skills. Space is limited and spots are filling up – so register today. We look forward to seeing you there!

Open Source Software and the Network of Tomorrow

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This post originally appeared on the DARPA Hackfest blog

When I look at innovative developments in software defined radio (SDR), I can’t help but view those in a larger context of how networking overall is being redefined in software. For years, networking was one corner of technology that seemed to defy the oft-repeated adage that software is eating the world. With its patchwork of arcane and proprietary network elements, complex standardization processes, and hardware-centric operations, networking simply seemed resistant to the changes affecting computation and storage.

What a difference a few years make! In short timeframe, we have seen the advent not only of SDR but also of Software Defined Networking (SDN), which decouples the control plane and data plane, and NFV (Network Functions Virtualization), which treats the capabilities that for years were built into monolithic hardware appliances as dynamic cloud applications. The hope is that this will allow operators to innovate much more quickly, and, in response to demand and subscriber usage, scale out and in. With 5G and the Internet of Things (IOT) on the horizon, most operators feel that cloud, SDN, NFV, and SDR frameworks will all be necessary to rolling out these services.

What I find even more extraordinary than the pace of innovation and change is how the breakneck pace is being driven: through open source resources. The operators have embraced open source software with gusto: no less venerable a company than AT&T has claimed that its network will be built on 80% open source components within 10 years. I’ve watched a very closed and competitive industry develop the sense of common community, a hallmark of the open source ethic. I’ve watched cutthroat competitors go out of their way to collaborate, both across company and geographic lines, and it’s been a great counterpoint to much of the larger political narratives around us.

I have seen great innovation begin to emerge from this collaboration: a start to bringing AI and machine learning to network ops and to building self-healing and self-scaling networks that automatically tune themselves to the user experience. On the other hand, the vast array of data and subscriber information means that security and privacy concerns become even more critical, and it’s unclear that traditional telecom expertise either within companies or with policy makers has prepared anyone for this impact. And as cool as these technologies are, the ongoing litany of abuses on social media platforms has taught us that depending on algorithms to run a platform on which millions of people rely has consequences.

What gives me hope is that doing this work in the open in fully transparent communities means that anyone can see the actual software being used and can comment on and change it. The network is being reimagined. Will that be for the eventual good of the consumer or not?

Heather Kirksey will be speaking at the DARPA Hackfest on Tuesday, November 14 at 18:45, at the NASA Ames Conference Center in Mountain View, Califronia.  

OPNFV Book Preview #4: “DevOps for NFV: OPNFV Infrastructure and Continuous Integration

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This post first appeared on Linux.com

By Amar Kapadia

In this article series, we have been discussing the Understanding OPNFV book. Previously, we talked about chapters 1-5 via an introduction to network functions virtualization (NFV), the role of OPNFV in network transformation, and how OPNFV integrates and enhances upstream projects. We continue our series with a look at chapters 6 and 7, that provide in-depth insight into the OPNFV DevOps toolchain, hardware labs, continuous integration (CI) pipeline and deployment tools (installers).

As mentioned previously, OPNFV integrates a number of upstream projects along with code contributions from the OPNFV community. To integrate and test these projects and contributions in an automated manner, the OPNFV project uses a variety of DevOps tools, hardware labs and a sophisticated CI pipeline. In fact, there is no better way for a telecom operator to absorb the principles of DevOps than by joining OPNFV.

Chapter 6 of the book starts by discussing each of the various software and cloud-based tools used by OPNFV for DevOps:

  • Collaboration: JIRA/Confluence
  • Source code management and code review: Git, Gerrit, and GitHub
  • CI/software automation: Jenkins
  • Artifact repository: Google cloud storage and Docker hub

Here is an excerpt from the book discussing Gerrit:

Code Reviews – Gerrit

Committing to master requires an approval process, and this process is managed through a tool called Gerrit. Gerrit is an open source web-based code review tool developed by Google. All changes pushed by contributors using a git push or git review command are reviewed in Gerrit by a set of reviewers, who view and inspect the patch. Reviewers also get to see the results of a continuous integration (CI) build and automated verify test run. Reviewers provide scores of +2, +1, -1 or -2. A +2 is a definite accept, while a -2 is a definite reject. A +1 or -1 may result in the change being accepted, rejected or sent back for changes.

OPNFV Gerrit

The chapter then describes the hardware labs used for automated integration and testing jobs. OPNFV has defined a standardized set of hardware, called a Pharos lab, consisting of 6 nodes and associated switches to automatically deploy OPNFV software by using the CI pipeline. The Pharos lab concept has been very successful with 16 labs distributed all around the world working seamlessly.

Chapter 6 continues by describing the CI pipeline in detail, where changes in upstream projects or community code contributions trigger integration jobs and specific time-durations (such as daily, weekly) trigger testing jobs. The CI pipeline diagram from the book is shown below:

Chapter 7 start by exploring the concept of OPNFV scenarios. Since OPNFV allows for multiple choices for different software layers, numerous permutations are possible. In addition to the different upstream projects described in the previous blog, OPNFV also allows for diversity in installers. The list of scenarios represents a subset of all possible permutations; effectively each scenario is a tested reference architecture. Examples of scenarios are:

  • OpenStack + ODL + L3 FD.io + High Availability (HA) using the Apex installer, or
  • OpenStack + OpenContrail + HA using the JOID installer

The OPNFV Danube release had 55 scenarios. However, if we ignore non-HA scenarios and the specific installer used, we are down to 21 distinct usable scenarios.

The chapter continues by providing an overview of the 4 major installers used in the Danube release: Apex, Compass, Fuel and JOID, and ends with a discussion of additional deployment related projects such as Daisy (a new installer), IPv6, Parser, ARMBand (to run OPNFV on ARM) and FastDataStacks (FD.io with OPNFV).

Want to learn more? You can check out the previous blog post that discussed the broader NFV transformation complexities  and how OPNFV solves an important piece of the puzzle, download the Understanding OPNFV ebook in PDF (in English or Chinese), or order a printed version on Amazon.